Which term identifies a reaction that breaks apart macromolecules? (2023)

Which term identifies a reaction that breaks apart macromolecules?

The correct answer is hydrolysis. Hydrolysis refers to a chemical reaction in which water is utilized to dissociate the bonds of a specific substance. ...

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What is the name of the chemical reaction that breaks macromolecules apart?

Hydrolysis reactions break bonds and release energy. Biological macromolecules are ingested and hydrolyzed in the digestive tract to form smaller molecules that can be absorbed by cells and then further broken down to release energy.

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What is the term for a reaction that breaks macromolecules into subunits and releases energy?

Dehydration synthesis reactions build molecules up and generally require energy, while hydrolysis reactions break molecules down and generally release energy. Carbohydrates, proteins, and nucleic acids are built up and broken down via these types of reactions, although the monomers involved are different in each case.

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What is a hydrolysis reaction?

Thus, a hydrolysis reaction is the cleavage of chemical bonds by the addition of water or a base that supplies the hydroxyl ion ( OH). A chemical bond is cleaved, and two new bonds are formed, each one having either the hydrogen component (H) or the hydroxyl component (OH) of the water molecule.

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How do you identify macromolecules?

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What enzymes break down macromolecules?

A specific enzyme breaks down each macromolecule. For instance, amylase, sucrase, lactase, or maltase break down carbohydrates. Enzymes called proteases, such as pepsin and peptidase, and hydrochloric acid break down proteins. Lipases break down lipids.

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When a protein is broken down into its monomers the reaction is called?

When cells produce polypeptides, chains of amino acids, during protein synthesis, the reaction that joins these amino acids together is a dehydration reaction (also called a condensation reaction). Water molecules can be inserted between monomers to break down a polymer in a reaction called hydrolysis (Figure 2.8).

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How are macromolecules broken down?

Each macromolecule is broken down by a specific enzyme. For instance, carbohydrates are broken down by amylase, sucrase, lactase, or maltase. Proteins are broken down by the enzymes pepsin and peptidase, and by hydrochloric acid. Lipids are broken down by lipases.

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Which type of reaction breaks the bonds between the subunits in a polymer chain?

Which type of reaction breaks the bonds between the subunits in a polymer chain? -Hydrolysis reactions occur when the covalent bond between the subunits of a polymer are broken. A water molecule is split into H and OH to occupy the broken bonds.

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What does hydrolysis mean in biology?

: a chemical process of decomposition involving the splitting of a bond and the addition of the hydrogen cation and the hydroxide anion of water.

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Why is it called hydrolysis?

The word hydrolysis comes from the word hydro, which is Greek for water, and lysis, which means "to unbind." In practical terms, hydrolysis means the act of separating chemicals when water is added.

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What is hydration and hydrolysis?

The difference between hydration and hydrolysis is that hydrolysis is the process of breaking of compounds using water, whereas hydration is defined as the electrophilic addition reaction, and there is no cleavage of the original molecule. In hydration, the water molecules are added to the substance.

Which term identifies a reaction that breaks apart macromolecules? (2023)
What is a hydrolysis reaction quizlet?

hydrolysis. A chemical reaction in which a compound is broken down into smaller molecules by reacting with water. In biology most hydrolysis reactions involve polymers breaking down into monomers. monomer.

What are the types of macromolecules?

There are three major types of biological macromolecules in mammalian systems.
  • Carbohydrates.
  • Nucleic acids.
  • Proteins.

Which of the following is the best definition of a macromolecule?

Macromolecules are large, complex molecules. They are usually the product of smaller molecules, like proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates.

What are macromolecules examples?

Polysaccharides, proteins, and nucleic acids are common examples of macromolecules.

What happens in a dehydration reaction?

In a dehydration reaction, either a hydroxyl group from one molecule combines with a hydrogen atom from the other molecule, or two hydrogen atoms from one molecule combine with an oxygen atom on the other molecule. In either case, water is released, and the two molecules are joined together.

What chemical reactions are used to make polymers?

The chemical reaction in which high molecular mass molecules are formed from monomers is known as polymerization. There are two basic types of polymerization, chain-reaction (or addition) and step-reaction (or condensation) polymerization.

What is macromolecules in chemistry?

Macromolecules are basically polymers, long chains of molecular sub-units called monomers. Carbohydrates, proteins and nucleic acids are found as long polymers. Due to their polymeric nature and large size, they are known as macromolecules.

What are examples of macromolecules?

The most common macromolecules in biochemistry are biopolymers (nucleic acids, proteins, and carbohydrates) and large non-polymeric molecules such as lipids, nanogels and macrocycles. Synthetic fibers and experimental materials such as carbon nanotubes are also examples of macromolecules.

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